INVENTION OF NUMERALS
Numerals are found in the inscriptions of Ashok The Great in the 3rd Century BCE. This knowledge traveled from there to Europe and West. In Arab countries even now numerals are known as HINDSE: from India. La place, the French mathematician and physicist, wrote during Napoleon's time, "It is India that gave us the ingenious method of expressing all numbers by means of ten symbols" - Prof. O.M. Mathew in Bhavan's Journal. Please click on the post title to read more about this article...
INVENTION OF ZERO
Brahmagupt was the first mathematician to treat ZERO (0) as a number and showed its mathematical operations
INVENTION OF ARITHMETIC
Arithmetic was discovered by Indians in about 2nd Century BCE. Bhaskaracharya's book Lilavati is regarded as the first book on modern arithmetic. The Arabs learnt and adopted it from India and spreaded it to Europe. "In 499 CE Aryabhatt finished his work Aryabhatt, giving rules of Arithmetic" (Encyclopedia Britannica)
INVENTION OF ALGEBRA
In western Europe the knowledge of Algebra was borrowed, not from Greece but from Arabs, who acquired this from India. Algebra is the only Arabic name for Bijaganit. "Aryabhatt was one of the first to use Algebra" (Encyclopedia Britannica)
INVENTION OF GEOMETRY AND TRIGNOMETRY
The brick work of Harappa and Mohenjodaro excavations show that people of ancient India (2500 BCE) possessed knowledge of Geometry. Aryabhatt formulated the rules for finding the area of a 'triangle', which led to the origin of Trignometry.
DISCOVERY OF ASTRONOMY
The knowledge of the motion of heavenly bodies was discovered by Aryabhatt (499 CE), Latadev (505 CE) and Brahmagupt (628 CE), for calculating the timing of eclipses. In "Soorya Siddhant" Latadeva, talked about the earth's axis and called it SUMERU. "That the earth is a sphere and it rotates on its own axis", was known to Varahamihira and other Indian astronomers much before Copernicus published this theory. (Jewish Encyclopedia)
INVENTION OF CALENDAR MAKING
Discovery of measurement of time and discovery of nomenclature of days, month and years and invention of calendar making was made in India. In his book 'Surya Sidhanta' Latadeva (505 CE) divided the year into 12 months. Seven planets of the solar system effect the earth's atmosphere and their names were added to the seven days of the week, which was accepted all over the world.
DISCOVERY OF THEORY OF GRAVITATION
In his book 'Siddhant Shiromani' Bhaskaracharya mentions about force of attraction resembling gravity, discovered centuries later by Newton. (Jewish Encyclopedia)
INVENTION OF IRON PRODUCTS IN 3000 BCE
The word AYAS occurs in the four Vedas which denotes iron. Ashoka pillar at Mehrauli, New Delhi and another iron pillar in Karnataka stand proof of India's metallurgical heritage (A study published in the magazine 'The Current Science').
INVENTION OF COPPER, BRONZE AND ZINC
The copper and bronze artifacts dates back to Indus Valley Civilization (2500 BCE). According to treatise RASARATNAKAR, zinc was made in around 50 BCE at Zawar in Rajasthan (India).
INVENTION OF CHEMICALS PROCESSES, DYES AND CHEMICAL COLORS
Chemistry known as RASAYAN SHASTR was invented in India. Elphinstone wrote in his book 'History of India', "They (ancient Indians) know how to prepare the sulphate of copper, zinc and iron and carbonates of lead and iron". RASAVIDYA or Indian alchemy made its appearance around 5th Century CE (National Science Centre, New Delhi) Posted by John Pifer
India's heritage of solving problems is often overshadowed by centuries of colonialism and conquest. Outside Delhi I visited one of the oldest monuments to that history . . . pillar of iron alloy, smelted by Indian metallurgists with such skill that it has remained rustless for 1,500 years. (Photograph on page 533.) - National Geographic Magazine, Volume 167, Number 4, April 1985; page 527 Posted by Jai Maharaj in 1993
Metallurgy in Ancient Bharat (India)
In ancient times in India, we had evolved a method of making stainless steel. This was also used in casting swords.
The rust-proof Iron Pillar at the Kutub Minar complex near Delhi is one example, there are more such examples.
Some Greek texts which are 2000 years old (Periplus of the Erythrean Sea and others) talk of the import of coins from India. The making of coins presumes the existence of techniques for the smelting of metals.
Incidentally the Emglish Word Cash orignates from the Sanskrit term "Karsha" according to the Oxford Dictionary.
I have come across a Sanskrit text named "Rasa-ratnakara" by Nagarjuna. This texy is dated around the 9th century and talks of the conversion of the base metals into gold- like alloys.
Oldest Vedic Icon Forms Bharat History
Whoever first dug up the foot-tall copper head outside Delhi obviously didn't know how they held a key piece of the early Hindu history puzzle. It was 1958, and the curious, hollow image was on its way to being melted down into a copper-zinc soup. Six thousand years of archeology, metallurgy, art and religious history would have been liquefied.
Fortunately, it didn't become some rich person's copper plumbing. But it's presence did begin melting rigid buttumptions by Western scholars on the timing of the migration of Indo-Europeans into northern India -- moving their arrival back by some 2,000 years to around 4,000 BCE. State-of-the-art Carbon-14 dating (carbon deposits were found on the figure's inside) ages the life-size head at 3,700 BCE, plus or minus 800 years. That makes it the oldest artifact discovered from the Vedic period, and puts it on a par with the most timeworn artifacts from the Indus Valley empire of North India (believed Saivite.) According to Harry Hicks, of the Hicks Foundation for Cultural Preservation --which owns the artifact -- the bust is the "oldest discovered, worshipped image of any religion."
The head is an anomaly. Its style is radically unique -- no other artifact exists quite like it. The hair is coiled into a knot dipping to the right side of the head, a Vedic coiffure that Hicks says is typical of the Vashishta priests mentioned in the Vedas. It bears the Third Eye mark and the crescent moon of Shiva, and the curious inclusion of a "warrior's mustache." (I am looking at a photograph of the figure.) The face, which is quite realistic, appears to fuse into an unrealistically thick neck, prompting Hicks to speculate that the figure is the first--or oldest known--example of the face of Shiva appearing out of a Lingam form.
If indeed the head sacerdotal icon, it also dispells the common perception that the Vedic era's mode of divine- communion was only the Yagya or fire ceremony. The earliest evidence of urbanization in the territory of Bharat features circular temples with Shivalingam stones enshrined in the center. And the most powerful Yagya rites involved the burying of a small golden man underneath the Homa pit.
At the neck of the head is inscribed the word "Narayana," which in tests by copper aging facilities at the Crocker Nuclear Laboratory proved to be scratched in six or seven centuries ago. Excerpted from Hinduism Today Posted by Jai Maharaj in 1993